Circulating free DNA (cfDNA) are degraded DNA fragments released to the blood plasma. cfDNA can be used to describe various forms of DNA freely circulating the bloodstream, including circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA). Elevated levels of cfDNA are observed in cancer, especially in advanced disease.There is evidence that cfDNA becomes increasingly frequent in circulation with the onset of age. cfDNA has been shown to be a useful biomarker for a multitude of ailments other than cancer and fetal medicine. This includes but is not limited to trauma, sepsis, aseptic inflammation, myocardial infarction, stroke, transplantation, diabetes, and sickle cell disease. cfDNA is mostly a double-stranded extracellular molecule of DNA, consisting of small fragments (70 to 200 bp) and larger fragments (21 kb). and has been recognized as an accurate marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer and breast cancer.
The release of cfDNA into the bloodstream appears by different reasons, including the primary tumor, tumor cells that circulate in peripheral blood, metastatic deposits present at distant sites, and normal cell types, like hematopoietic and stromal cells. Tumor cells and cfDNA circulate in the bloodstream of patients with cancer. Its rapidly increased accumulation in blood during tumor development is caused by an excessive DNA release by apoptotic cells and necrotic cells. Active secretion within exosomes has been discussed, but it is still we don't know whether this is a relevant or rather minor source of cfDNA.
cfDNA circulates predominantly as nucleosomes, which are nuclear complexes of histones and DNA. They are frequently nonspecifically elevated in cancer but may be more specific for monitoring cytotoxic cancer therapy, mainly for the early estimation of therapy efficacy.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, the capital of China's Hubei province, and has since spread globally, resulting in the ongoing 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. Common symptoms include fever, cough and shortness of breath. Other symptoms may include fatigue, muscle pain, diarrhea, sore throat, loss of smell and abdominal pain. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to viral pneumonia and multi-organ failure. As of 7 April 2020, more than 1.34 million cases have been reported in more than 200 countries and territories, resulting in more than 74,800 deaths. More than 277,000 people have recovered.
The virus is mainly spread during close contact and by small droplets produced when those infected cough, sneeze or talk. These small droplets may also be produced during breathing; however, they rapidly fall to the ground or surfaces and are not generally spread through the air over large distances. People may also become infected by touching a contaminated surface and then their face. The virus can survive on surfaces for up to 72 hours. It is most contagious during the first three days after onset of symptoms, although spread may be possible before symptoms appear and in later stages of the disease. The time from exposure to onset of symptoms is typically around five days, but may range from two to 14 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia.
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